Are COVID-19 vaccine ingredients safe?
COVID-19 vaccines give us our best shot at beating the pandemic. In time, everyone will have a chance to get one.
But in the meantime, if you have concerns about what's in them, these facts may give you peace of mind.
No live coronavirus in the vaccine
Vaccines contain ingredients that help your body build immunity against a specific virus. However, not all vaccines have the same ingredients.
Two of the COVID-19 vaccines currently authorized for use in the U.S. are the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines. They are a newer type of vaccine, called mRNA vaccines, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports.
They don't use live or weakened viruses to build immunity. Instead, they use messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA instructs cells to make a harmless piece of the virus's genetic material called the spike protein, which is found on the surface of the coronavirus. This teaches the immune system to recognize and fight the real virus. But because the vaccine doesn't contain any live virus, there's no way it can give you COVID-19.
The vaccine's mRNA does not stay in the body, and it cannot change your DNA.
The third authorized vaccine, from Johnson & Johnson (J&J), uses viral vector technology to create immunity. It uses a harmless adenovirus as the vehicle to introduce the coronavirus's genetic material to your immune system.
Once inside your cells, that genetic material instructs them to make the coronavirus's spike protein. The cells then display the spike protein on their surface. As with the mRNA vaccines, these proteins trigger an immune reaction.
Like the mRNA vaccines, viral vector vaccines don't contain the real coronavirus. They cannot give you COVID-19 or a cold. And they can't change your own DNA in any way.
Also not included
The Pfizer, Moderna and J&J vaccines also lack some other ingredients some people may be concerned about. They do not have:
- Preservatives, such as thimerosal (which contains an organic form of mercury). Most vaccines do not use thimerosal or mercury. And the type of mercury found in the few vaccines that do have thimerosal is not likely to build up in the body. In tiny amounts, it is safe in vaccines.
- Formaldehyde, used to help make some vaccines.
- Eggs, latex or antibiotics. Some people are allergic to these things.
- Microchips. Scientists are not putting microchips in the vaccines to track us. That's a myth. In fact, it's not even possible to do so.
What is in the shot?
Like all vaccine ingredients, those in the COVID-19 vaccine serve a specific purpose. For instance, some ingredients help the vaccine work. Others are needed to help produce the vaccine.
Here are some of the other ingredients in the COVID-19 vaccines now in use. Ask your doctor if you have any concerns about them.
- 2[(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide.
- Potassium chloride.
- Monobasic potassium phosphate.
- Dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate.
- Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2000 dimyristoyl glycerol (DMG).
- Tromethamine hydrochloride.
- Acetic acid.
- Sodium acetate.
- Citric acid monohydrate.
- Trisodium citrate dihydrate.
- 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBCD).
- Sodium chloride.
Talk to your doctor
Some side effects have occurred with COVID-19 vaccines. Most are minor, like a sore arm. A few people have had more serious allergic reactions, but this is very rare. CDC says that if you have had an allergic reaction to PEG or polysorbate, you should not get an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, and you should inform your doctor before getting the J&J vaccine. You can help make your shot even safer by telling your provider if you:
- Have any allergies or other health problems.
- Have ever had an allergic reaction to a vaccine.
Take it from them
"I'm utterly thrilled to get the COVID-19 vaccine. It feels so good. I'm so relieved. I'll get to see my vaccinated friends. And I hope everyone will get vaccinated so we can hang out again. We're so lucky here." —Betsy Sims, Studio A Recording Studio
"I've taken care of many patients with COVID-19. I've watched them suffer. I've watched them need oxygen and not be able to move around the room. The COVID-19 vaccine is safe and effective. I was very excited to be offered one. I highly encourage everyone to get your vaccine as soon as possible. Any side effects are much less than if you get the disease and end up one of the unlucky ones on high-flow oxygen or a ventilator. Even more alarming are people who never get their full lung function back. What is worse: a sore arm or being hospitalized on a ventilator? The choice is clear." —Mignon "Mimi" Froom Benjamin, MD
"Our community is turning the COVID-19 corner! It's great to see friends and neighbors already vaccinated. I'm vaccinated. It feels fantastic to get out and support local businesses and spend time with friends after so long. SLEEVES UP. Help get our local economy back UP!" —Kirby Day, Government and Community Relations, Holland America Group
"It made my job easier. I'm not worried about my health or my family's health. The chance of an allergic reaction is small, and the most compelling statistic on why one should get the vaccine is that, in all trials, the chance of dying from a COVID infection is zero." —Lindy Jones, MD, Emergency Department Medical Director, Bartlett Regional Hospital